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Oceanweather has been active in remote sensing research since its founding, particularly in the development of satellite active microwave remote sensing of the sea surface. Dr. Cardone, prior to co-founding Oceanweather Inc., became involved in the earliest stages of research on the development and evaluation of microwave remote sensors to measure ocean roughness, winds and sea state. He personally participated in many aircraft missions into severe storms during the 1960s to help evaluate prototype sensors. He later contributed to NASA's SKYLAB mission to evaluate the effectiveness of the first spaceborne radar scatterometer, S193. Oceanweather contributed to the evaluation of both the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) (Cardone et al., 1979, 1983) and the scatterometer (SASS) on SEASAT (Wentx et al., 1982).

The potential of global scatterometer data to positively impact global numerical weather prediction was demonstrated in a study carried out jointly with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Cane et al., 1981). Oceanweather collaborated with the research team at Columbia's Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory to evaluate the impact of scatterometer data acquired during the NASA NSCAT mission on tropical ocean modeling, wind field analysis, climate assessment and other areas in air-sea interaction.

A separate research program funded by the US Weather Research Program evaluated the potential of NSCAT to diagnose the wind field and the intensity of tropical cyclones (Jones et al., 1999, Cardone et al., 1999). The NASA QuikSCAT mission has by mid-2000 provided a two-year global data base of high quality scatterometer and several research projects are underway at Oceanweather.

One program supported by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory seeks to validate the scatterometer model function to high winds and to utilize the data to develop high quality wind fields in severe storms. Another project, funded by Office of Naval Research in part continues the previous work to explore and exploit the QuikSCAT data for tropical cyclone diagnosis and prediction (Cox and Cardone, 2000). Oceanweather has also integrated the use of QuikSCAT data as appropriate in its global and regional hindcast studies and real time forecast operation.


1979. Cardone, V. J. with 10 co-authors. Surface observations for the evaluation of geophysical measurements from SEASAT. Science, 204, 1408 -1410.

1981. Cane, M. A., V. J. Cardone, M. Halem and I. Halberstam. On the sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to remotely sensed marine surface winds data: a simulation study. J. of Geophys. Res., 86, 8093-8106.

1982. Wentz, F. and V. J. Cardone. Intercomparison of wind speeds inferred by the SASS, Altimeter and SMMR. J. of Geophys. Res., 87, 3378-3384.

1983. Cardone, V. J., T. Chester and R. Lipes. Evaluation of SEASAT SMMR wind speed measurements. J. of Geophys. Res., 88, 1709-1726.

1999. Jones, W. L., V. J. Cardone, W. J. Pierson, J. Zec, L. P. Rice, A.T. Cox, W. B. Sylvester. NSCAT high-resolution surface wind measurements in Typhoon Violet. J. Geophys. Res., 104(C5), 11247-11259.

1999. Cardone, V. J., A. T. Cox W. J. Pierson, W. B. Sylvester, W. L. Jones,J. Zec. (1999) NASA scatterometer high resolution winds for Hurricane Lili. International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARRS'99) 28 June - 2 July, 1999, Hamburg.

2000 Cox, A. T. and V. J. Cardone. Operational system for the prediction of tropical cyclone generated winds and waves. 6th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting, November 6-10, 2000, Monterey, CA.


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